Organización para Estudios Tropicales, (OET), Costa Rica
Bibliografía Nacional en Biología Tropical, (BINABITROP)

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Signatura:Non available.
Autor: Martínez-Carrera, D.
Dirección: College of Postgraduates in Agricultural Sciences, Mushroom Biotechnology, Apartado Postal 701, Puebla 72001, Puebla, MX E-mail: dcarrera@colpos.colpos.mx.
Título: Mushroom biotechnology in tropical America. Biotecnología de champiñones en la América tropical.
P.imprenta: v. 3, no. 1, p. 9-20. Año 2000.
Serie: International Journal of Mushroom Sciences.
Descriptores: APHYLLOPHORALES; BASIDIOMYCOTA; EUMYCOTA; FUNGI.
LENTINULA; BIOTECHNOLOGY; MODELS; ENTERPRISES; RURAL DEVELOPMENT; SUSTAINABILITY; TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; EDIBLE FUNGI; VEGETABLES.
GUATEMALA; COSTA RICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; ARGENTINA; ECUADOR; BOLIVIA; BRAZIL; CHILE; VENEZUELA; PERU; COLOMBIA; SOUTH AMERICA; MEXICO; NORTH AMERICA; ASIA; SOUTH EAST ASIA; EUROPE.
Resumen: Compared to SE Asia or Europe, empirical methods for mushroom cultivation were not developed in tropical America. Cultivation of edible mushrooms started in 1933, adapting simple technologies in central Mexico, followed by Argentina (1941), Colombia (1950), Brazil (1951), Chile (1959), Guatemala (1960), Peru (1960), Ecuador (1967), Venezuela (1968), Costa Rica (1969), and Bolivia (1989). Mushroom cultivation has become established in highlands rather than in tropical lowlands where disadvantages are found. At present, Agaricus and Pleurotus are the most important mushrooms produced commercially, although Lentinula (shiitake) cultivation is gaining importance. Annual production in tropical America has been estimated to be about 48.985 tonnes, with an economic value of more than 120 million dollars and it generates at least 30.000 jobs. Production has evolved through private commercial enterprises, operating primarily on a large or small scale. However, research work since 1989 stimulated a new approach with enormous potential: rural production of edible mushrooms for satisfying local or regional needs. A model for technology transfer has been developed, enabling the incorporation of mushroom biotechnology in rural development. Concepts of the model, involving mushroom cultivation at commercial, community, and self-consumption levels, are being integrated into the development of improved systems of traditional sustainable agriculture. Main challenges from globalization faced by rural and private enterprises in tropical America are discussed
Compiled by: Organization for Tropical Studies


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